It’s early days, but a chemical found in a fungus growing in mud near a boat ramp could be the inglorious source of a pain killer as potent as morphine.
This article would be suited to students in years 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 studying Chemical and Biological Sciences with a particular interest in future pharmaceuticals.
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A sample of estuarine mud taken 16 years ago has yielded a potential new class of painkiller as potent as opioids, but without their disadvantages.
Researchers from The University of Queensland and University of Sydney have filed a patent application for the potential drug, which is a modified version of a molecule found in a Penicillium fungus, and published their results in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA.
The research team are continuing their research, which has so far found potential in the lab using cells. However the challenge will be replicating the effects in a body.
Reducing opioid overdose
Rob Capon, from UQ’s Institute for Molecular Bioscience, says he and his team were investigating the chemistry of marine fungi, including a sample collected next to a boat ramp in Tasmania.
“We came across a mud fungus that yielded a new type of molecule which we named the bilaids, that I noticed were similar to endomorphins – natural peptides produced by the human body that activate opioid receptors and provide pain relief,” Capon says.
He teamed up with IMB colleague Paul Alewood, and the University of Sydney’s Macdonald Christie, to see if they could harness these promising molecules to develop a new painkiller.
Alewood oversaw chemical modifications that delivered a new molecule based on the bilaids, named bilorphin, which is as potent as morphine and potentially far more suitable as a pain drug.
Christie, says such a development could have a major impact globally.
“No one had ever pulled anything out of nature, anything more ancient than a vertebrate, that seemed to act on opioid receptors – and we found it.”
“If this proves successful and leads to a new medication, it will significantly reduce the risk of death by overdose from opioid medications such as codeine.”
Success is dependant on chemical structure
The key to the success of these molecules lies in their chemical structure, or ‘handedness.’
The bilaids consisted of a chain of four of the building blocks of life, amino acids, and also had a curious ‘handedness’.
“In Nature, many molecules can be described as either ‘left-handed’ or ‘right-handed’, and just like hands, they are mirror images of each other,” Capon explains.
“While almost all natural amino acids are ‘left-handed’, the bilaids were unique in featuring alternating ‘left-handed’ and ‘right-handed’ amino acids.”
The opioid receptor sends out two signalling cascades, with opioids such as morphine activating the receptor with a bias towards one cascade – in contrast, bilorphin activates the receptor with the opposite bias.
Researchers hypothesised that the signalling bias is behind the adverse side effects seen in opioid drugs – addiction, tolerance, respiratory depression – so by activating the opposite bias, bilorphin has the potential to be a safer pain drug.
Capon says a targeted program analysing soil samples and the diverse microbes found within them could benefit the development of drugs for conditions without effective treatments.
“Although our discovery of an analgesic from an estuarine mud fungus was serendipitous, it does beg the question – with an almost infinite diversity of fungi in the soils, plants, animals and waters of the planet, perhaps we should be exploring other fungi for analgesics?”
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